By Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnic
Geared towards upper-level undergraduates and graduate scholars, this article was once written by way of scientists on the nationwide critical Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, a department of the nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric management. themes contain electromagnetic waves and propagation, climate signs and their Doppler spectra, climate sign processing, measurements of precipitation and turbulence, and observations of winds and storms in addition to reasonable climate. Radar pictures and images of climate phenomena spotlight the text.
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Extra info for Doppler Radar and Weather Observations
The vertical scale is proportional to the logarithm of the echo power; the time scale is 50 //s/division. 2 /zs. Inset shows an expanded view of the tower echoes, with a scale of 5 ^s/division. 4) and then displayed on video equipment to show their relative strengths and delay referenced to the time of the transmitted pulse (Fig. 2). This echoing principle was first applied in the late 1920s to measure remotely the properties of the ionosphere, and in 1934 a 10-m wavelength radar was first used by the Naval Research Laboratory to locate an airplane.
However, when Doppler weather radars are used to measure wind in clear air, as discussed in Chapter 11, the noise contributions (from components between the receiver and target such as transmission lines, radomes, or the TR switch) have paramount importance because the echo power can be smaller than the noise power. Even when a signal is weaker than the noise, the processing techniques described in Chapter 6 can extract Doppler velocity information. , the receiver input) has contributions from several sources.
The scatter loss will result in increased 42 3 Principles of Radar side lobe levels. 33). 2 Bandwidth The echo pulse, as with any signal, can be decomposed into Fourier spectral coefficients. The receiver amplifies only a band of these spectral or frequency components; that is, the receiver has a finite bandwidth. The receiver's filter (Fig. 1) response G(f) is usually a monotonically decreasing function of frequency, and the filter's bandwidth B6 is best specified as the frequencies within which the attenuation of power, G2(f), is less than one-fourth of its highest level—its 6-dB width.