By Mike W. Ross, DVM, and Sue J. Dyson, MA, VetMB, PhD, DEO, FRCVS (Eds.)
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Extra info for Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse
The deformity involves the entire limb, beginning well above the carpus. Fig. 4-21 of the limb (see Fig. 4-23). This deformity is a combination of contraction (clubfoot) and laxity (calf knee) caused by chronic lameness and partial weight bearing and warrants a guarded prognosis. Over-at-the-knee, bucked-knee (knee-sprung), or hangingknee conformation describes a convex dorsal surface of the carpus, with the carpus in front of the plumb line (Fig. 4-24). In young, untrained horses, bucked-knee conformation may be a predictor of lameness, but in mature horses it appears to be an acquired characteristic and occurs primarily in horses that jump.
These horses may exhibit a tendency to buck forward to such an extent that they appear on the verge of collapse or prone to stumbling yet show good stability. Tied in below the knee (Fig. 4-25) describes a distinct notch just distal to the accessory carpal bone on the palmar aspect of the limb. Normally, McIII and the ﬂexor tendons are in parallel alignment from the accessory carpal bone to the proximal sesamoid bones. With tied-in conformation the ﬂexor tendons appear to enter the carpus in a dorsoproximal direction.
HINDLIMB CONFORMATION Lateral Perspective Hindlimb conformational faults generally are less numerous and problematic than those in the forelimb because of differences in weight distribution and center of gravity. Plumb lines also are useful in evaluating conformation of the hindlimb with the horse standing squarely, loading all limbs (see Fig. 4-10). Camped-out conformation is unusual and generally results from faulty positioning of the horse during the examination. Horses that are truly camped out usually have short strides and poor athletic ability.