By National Defense Research Institute (U. S.), Cheryl Y. Marcum
In 1998, the security technology Board job strength on Human assets Strategywas validated for the aim of comparing the dept of Defense's(DoD's) means to draw and keep either civilian and army personnel.As a part of this review, RAND was once requested to review the expansion of politicalappointment positions in the DoD in addition to to envision the appointmentand affirmation strategy that power political appointees face. Taskedwith reviewing correct DoD information, the nationwide safeguard study Institute(NDRI), performing in help of the security technology Board job strength, foundthat the variety of DoD positions requiring Senate affirmation has grownsignificantly during the last 20 years. The examine additionally published that thefunctional obligations of such positions have narrowed whereas theirvacancy charges have elevated. In assessing the literature, the NDRI foundthat disincentives exist within the political appointment and confirmationprocess -- specifically, necessities that applicants expose a number personaland monetary details; specifications to conform with conflict-of-interestregulations which can require divestiture of inventory holdings; and requirementsto agree to wide publish employment regulations. also, thelength of the appointment and affirmation procedure itself might function adisincentive to power appointees.
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Extra resources for Department of Defense Political Appointments: Positions and Process
14 The key is that the individual must refrain from engaging in any activity that might be perceived to presume the outcome of the confirmation process. The committee then holds a hearing that usually results in the recommendation of approval for the nominee. After the committee rules on the nomination, it reports the vote, whether positive or negative, to the full Senate. The legislative clerk calendars the nomination for a full-Senate vote. Although most nominations are confirmed, Mackenzie (1996) is nevertheless concerned that recent Senate actions—such as holding grueling committee hearings and causing purposeful delays in consideration of nominees (known as “holds”)—and the ensuing publicity about such actions may be a strong deterrent to those considering whether to accept an appointment.
27 Mackenzie (1996) states that the Senate confirmation process has become more vigilant in the past two decades, and even by the early 1980s, the Senate was ________________ 25Roberts and Doss (1996) point out that the Office of Government Ethics issues certificates of divestiture only for forced (involuntary) divestiture. They report that between 1990 and 1993 the OGE issued 461 certificates of divestiture. 26Roberts (1988a), quoted in Roberts and Doss (1996). The potential nominees were concerned because they themselves were Nixon Republican appointees and the Senate was under Democrat control.
The most noticeable growth in OSD PAS positions has been in the long-standing Assistant Secretary of Defense positions and since 1977, in two new administrative layers— Under Secretary and Deputy Under Secretary. By 1994, these new layers contained four Under Secretary of Defense positions and two Deputy Under Secretary of Defense positions. Consequently, the Secretaries of Defense during the Clinton administration have had more and thicker layers of advisers than did their predecessors. Although the intention behind adding layers of political appointees to the OSD may have been to allow the Secretary of Defense to better manage and control the DoD, several authors argue that in fact the opposite occurs.