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Extra resources for Cumitech 27: Laboratory Diagnosis of Zoonotic Infections
Samples for IR spectroscopy can be gaseous, liquid, or solid. Detailed sampling methodologies are presented in Chapter 3; for the time being, the collection of IR spectra for a neat liquid is discussed. Molar extinction coefficients (see below) for vibrational transitions typically are in the range 10–1000 L (mol cm)−1 , which requires that neat liquids be measured as thin layers, typically between 10 and 100 μm thick. To this end, the sample is introduced into a liquid cell made of IR transparent windows separated by a spacer of appropriate thickness.
114), Lorentzian (Eq. 13. These band envelopes are given by f (x) = Ie− for Gaussian and f (x) = I for Lorentzian bands. 13 Gaussian (a) and Lorentzian (b) line profiles. ” These monochromators utilized gratings or prisms to disperse the light and slits of appropriate widths to select an appropriate wavenumber band to irradiate the sample. As only one spectral element (band) was sampled at a time, acquisition of spectral data took minutes to hours. These instruments generally operated in “double-beam” mode were a chopper alternatingly directed the beam of light through a reference (background) and sample optical path.
2 summarizes many of the window materials commonly used in IR spectroscopy and their optical properties. In most IR spectrometers, the beam diameter at the sample is about 3–4 mm; combined with the required sample thickness (path length), the necessary sample volume is typically about 1 mm3 or 1 μL. 12(b). The changes between the background trace, I0 (̃ν), and the sample trace, I(̃ν), are readily apparent. 110) The ordinate values for the transmittance spectrum vary between 0 and 1. Often, the transmittance is multiplied by 100, and the spectra are reported in “percent transmission” ordinate values.