Continuities and Discontinuities in Development by Robert N. Emde, Robert J. Harmon

By Robert N. Emde, Robert J. Harmon

"Continuities and Discontinuities in improvement" was once the topic for the second one Biennial DPRG Retreat, a three-day assembly held at Estes Park, Colorado, in June 1982. The assembly used to be subsidized via the Devel­ opmental Psychobiology examine team (DPRG) of the dep. of Psychiatry on the collage of Colorado tuition of medication. The DPRG is a bunch of people accomplishing learn in lots of parts of improve­ ment who meet frequently to provide and speak about their paintings and obtain suggestions and encouragement. In 1974, this workforce used to be provided an endowment fund by way of the supply beginning, the goals of that have been to facilitate the examine of younger investigators, to inspire new re­ seek, and to supply seed funds for collaborative ventures. a lot of the paintings suggested during this quantity and within the prior quantity from the 1st DPRG Retreat is the results of that aid. as well as the paintings of the contributors of the DPRG, a choose team of site visitors used to be invited to take part within the assembly and give a contribution to this quantity. The chapters by means of William Greenough, Jerome Kagan, and Michael Rutter outcome from the participation of those students on the retreat. we want to recognize the aid of a few indi­ viduals who've been instrumental in helping the DPRG as an entire, in addition to those that contributed on to the second one Biennial Retreat and to the volume.

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Infancy: Its place in human development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978. , & Emde, R. N. Episodic growth in infancy: A preliminary report of length, head circumference and behavior. In K. ), New directions for child development: Levels and transitions in children's development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983. McCall, R. B. The development of intellectual functioning in infancy and the prediction of later IQ. In J. D. ), Handbook of infant development. New York: Wiley, 1979.

A second component of memory begins to grow soon after the middle of the first year. It is the ability to retrieve a schema created from past experience with minimal clues-or hints-in the immediate field. Four-month-olds can recognize that a face is or is not similar to one they have seen before, but they are far less able to retrieve a schema for an event without some relevant incentive present. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the distinction between recognition and recall memory that we apply to older children.

The two most popular fears of the first year have been called fear of strangers and fear following separation from the caretaker. Even blind one-year-olds cry when they hear their mother leave the room. The enhancement of active memory seems necessary for the appearance of these behaviors. As the stranger approaches, the 8-month-old studies the new face, retrieves her schemata for the familiar faces she knows, and compares the two ideas in active memory, trying to relate them and resolve their inconsistency.

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