By Paul E. Ceruzzi
The background of computing may be informed because the tale of and software program, or the tale of the web, or the tale of "smart" handheld units, with subplots related to IBM, Microsoft, Apple, fb, and Twitter. during this concise and obtainable account of the discovery and improvement of electronic know-how, laptop historian Paul Ceruzzi bargains a broader and extra helpful point of view. He identifies 4 significant threads that run all through all of computing's technological improvement: digitization--the coding of data, computation, and keep an eye on in binary shape, ones and zeros; the convergence of a number of streams of ideas, units, and machines, yielding greater than the sum in their elements; the regular improve of digital expertise, as characterised famously via "Moore's Law"; and the human-machine interface. Ceruzzi publications us via computing historical past, telling how a Bell Labs mathematician coined the notice "digital" in 1942 (to describe a high-speed approach to calculating utilized in anti-aircraft devices), and recounting the advance of the punch card (for use within the 1890 U.S. Census). He describes the ENIAC, outfitted for medical and armed forces functions; the UNIVAC, the 1st basic objective laptop; and ARPANET, the Internet's precursor. Ceruzzi's account lines the world-changing evolution of the pc from a room-size ensemble of equipment to a "minicomputer" to a computer computing device to a pocket-sized shrewdpermanent mobile. He describes the improvement of the silicon chip, that may shop ever-increasing quantities of information and enabled ever-decreasing machine dimension. He visits that hotbed of innovation, Silicon Valley, and brings the tale as much as the current with the web, the area huge net, and social networking.
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Submit yr be aware: First released January 1999
Freely on hand resource code, with contributions from millions of programmers around the globe: this is often the spirit of the software program revolution often called Open resource. Open resource has grabbed the pc industry's awareness. Netscape has opened the resource code to Mozilla; IBM helps Apache; significant database owners haved ported their items to Linux. As agencies detect the ability of the open-source improvement version, Open resource is changing into a achievable mainstream replacement to advertisement software.
Now in Open assets, leaders of Open resource come jointly for the 1st time to debate the hot imaginative and prescient of the software program they've got created. The essays during this quantity supply perception into how the Open resource flow works, why it succeeds, and the place it's going.
For programmers who've worked on open-source tasks, Open resources is the recent gospel: a robust imaginative and prescient from the movement's non secular leaders. For companies integrating open-source software program into their firm, Open assets finds the mysteries of the way open improvement builds greater software program, and the way companies can leverage freely on hand software program for a aggressive enterprise advantage.
The individuals the following were the leaders within the open-source arena:
Brian Behlendorf (Apache)
Kirk McKusick (Berkeley Unix)
Tim O'Reilly (Publisher, O'Reilly & Associates)
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Richard Stallman (GNU, loose software program starting place, Emacs)
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Linus Torvalds (Linux)
Paul Vixie (Bind)
Larry Wall (Perl)
This booklet explains why nearly all of the Internet's servers use open- resource applied sciences for every little thing from the working approach to net serving and electronic mail. Key expertise items constructed with open-source software program have overtaken and passed the industrial efforts of billion greenback businesses like Microsoft and IBM to dominate software program markets. study the interior tale of what led Netscape to determine to free up its resource code utilizing the open-source mode. learn the way Cygnus ideas builds the world's most sensible compilers by means of sharing the resource code. research why enterprise capitalists are eagerly staring at crimson Hat software program, a firm that provides its key product -- Linux -- away.
For the 1st time in print, this publication provides the tale of the open- resource phenomenon informed through the folks who created this movement.
Open resources will deliver you into the realm of unfastened software program and express you the revolution.
Approximately Linux Voice
Linux Voice is an self sustaining GNU/Linux and unfastened software program journal from the main skilled newshounds within the business.
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People try to wreck into our pcs, yet we will struggle again. With honeypots and crafty, we seize attackers red-handed and discover what they're up to.
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Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for advanced platforms which could comprise various gadget architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated speeded up Processing devices (APUs) akin to AMD Fusion expertise. Designed to paintings on a number of structures and with extensive aid, OpenCL may help you extra successfully software for a heterogeneous destiny.
The two-volume set IFIP AICT 419 and 420 constitutes the refereed post-conference complaints of the seventh IFIP TC five, WG five. 14 overseas convention on computing device and Computing applied sciences in Agriculture, CCTA 2013, held in Beijing, China, in September 2013. The a hundred and fifteen revised papers provided have been rigorously chosen from quite a few submissions.
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Extra resources for Computing: A Concise History (The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series)
The ENIAC Much of the work described here involved the aiming of antiaircraft guns or guns mounted on ships. The aiming of large artillery also required computation, and to that end, Bush’s differential analyzer was copied and heavily used to compute firing tables used in the field. Human computers, mostly women, also produced these tables. Neither method was able to keep up with wartime demand. From that need emerged a machine called the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), unveiled to the public in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering in Philadelphia.
Source: Digital Equipment Corporation, now Hewlett-Packard) (above) Teletypes were used as the main input-output device for the early personal computers, until inexpensive video terminals became available. This piece of Teletype tape contains an interpreter for the BASIC programming language, Microsoft’s first product. (Credit: Smithsonian Institution) The Digital Age 19 address were embossed, from which mailing labels were printed. 10 For many problems, especially those in science or engineering, a person operating a simple Comptometer or calculator could perform arithmetic quite rapidly, but she (and such persons typically were women) would be asked to carry out one sequence if interim results were positive, a different one if negative.
This principle, combined with the invention of high-speed memory devices, provided a practical alternative to the ENIAC’s cumbersome programming. By storing a program and data in a common high-speed memory, not only could programs be executed at electronic speeds; the programs could also be operated on as if they were data— the ancestor of today’s high-level languages compiled inside modern computers. 1 Some accounts called these computers “von Neumann machines,” a misnomer since his report did not fully credit others who contributed to the concept.