By Claus F.K. Diessel
The writer offers examples of coal deposits assorted continents: from the eu Carboniferous and the Permian Gondwana series of Australia. The natural and petrographic composition of the coal content material of palaeo-environmentally good outlined teams of sediments permit the discrimination of 2 coal facies indices as compatible symptoms for distinctive settings. Combining the analytical equipment of coal petrography, sedimentology and series stratigraphy an built-in view of coal formation is attained.
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Extra info for Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems
According to Rzoska (1974), the Vossia cuspidata grass grows mainly into the waterways, where its runners are particularly effective in retarding water flow. e. it has been produced by plants which grew in the swamp. e. those which were brought into the peat from outside, are of small volume only and usually confined to wind-blown material such as spores, pollen, leaves etc. Completely allochthonous peat deposits are exceedingly rare; they are small and display indications of transportation, such as high detrital mineral contents, including water-worn sand grains and pebbles, oriented tree trunks and, occasionally, cross-bedding.
Where in the latter the high-inertinite coals begin, the Ruhr Basin shows only the advent of the respective coarse clastics but the coal content declines rapidly. Instead, the already frequent occurrence of rooted horizons increases even further (Strehlau 1990; David 1989), suggesting that repeatedly for very brief episodes favourable growth conditions emerged but their duration was too short to allow peat accumulation to be sustained. g. g. pteropods) strategy (Collinson and Scott 1987). This requires a moist environment and free water in order to fertilise the spores.
These indicate that potentially favourable conditions for peat formation developed quite frequently but they failed to produce economic coal seams because of the low tolerance span of the not very diverse Carboniferous flora towards groundwater fluctuations. This was not the case, at 36 The Conditions of Peat Formation Fig. 17. Photograph of Vertebraria roots underneath the Piercefield Seam at Saxonvale Mine, Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Single roots can be traced for 1m into the floor which consists of barely disturbed and altered sandlaminated siltstone.