Chocolate Science and Technology by Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

By Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

This booklet offers an summary of the technological know-how and expertise of chocolate manufacture from cocoa creation, during the production approaches, to the sensory, foodstuff and wellbeing and fitness points of chocolate consumption.
It covers cocoa cultivation and creation with targeted awareness paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic diversifications within the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying methods, and the biochemical foundation of those operations. The clinical rules in the back of commercial chocolate manufacture are defined with designated causes of a few of the phases of chocolate production together with blending, refining, conching and tempering. different themes lined contain the chemistry of flavour formation and improvement in the course of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; unstable flavour compounds and their features and id; sensory descriptions and personality; and flavour free up and belief in chocolate. The dietary and future health advantages of cocoa and chocolate intake also are addressed.
There is a spotlight all through on these elements that impression the flavor and caliber features of the completed chocolate and that supply scope for approach optimization and development. The booklet is designed to be a table reference for all these engaged within the enterprise of creating and utilizing chocolate around the world; confectionery and chocolate scientists in and academia; scholars and training foodstuff scientists and technologists; nutritionists and different future health pros; and libraries of associations the place nutrients technology is studied and researched.* an summary of the technology at the back of chocolate manufacture* covers the full technique from cocoa creation, via production, to the nutrients and well-being elements of chocolate intake* makes a speciality of components that impression chocolate flavour and caliber, and that offer scope for approach optimization and development.

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2 Flowering and pod development The emergence of the bud through the bark of the tree marks the beginning of the cocoa bean development. This takes about 30 days from its histological beginnings to the its culmination on the bark surface, and within hours of its emergence, the bud matures, sepals split and the flower continues to mature during the first night following the budding. On the next morning after budding, the flower is fully opened (Fig. 2) and the anthers release their pollens. If not pollinated and fertilised on this day by insects, the flowers continue to abscission on the following day.

2007a). , 2005). Chocolate has a distinctive flavour character, with specific notes related to bean genotype, growing conditions and processing factors (Clapperton, 1994; Beckett, 2003; Whitefield, 2005). Fermentation is a key processing stage that causes the death of the bean and facilitates removal of the pulp and subsequent drying. During this stage, there is initiation of flavour precursor formation and colour development, and a significant reduction in bitterness. , 1996; Beckett, 2000; Awua, 2002; Reineccius, 2006).

With the first technique, the beans are assessed for the following indicators: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Degree of fermentation Moisture content (maximum 6%) Number of defects Number of broken beans Bean count (number per 100 g) Degree of mouldiness Flavour profile Colour Fat content (minimum 52%) Fat quality relating to percentage of free fatty acids (as oleic acid) Shell content (10–12%) Uniformity of bean size Insect and rodent infestation Industrial chocolate manufacture – processes and factors influencing quality 37 The second technique is evaluated based on the size of the beans using either bean count (number of beans per 100 g) or the weight in grams of 100 beans.

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