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Additional info for Chemistry Chemical Bonds (Zambak)
Compounds of phosphorus cannot form five bonds. D) 2 nonpolar, 4 polar E) 5 polar, 1 polar II. When it is excited, the phosphorus atom becomes pentavalent. III. Nitrogen can form both ionic and covalent bonds. A) I only B) II only D) I and II C) III only E) I and III 17. In which one of the following species would you expect to find a π bond? A) H2 B) O2 C) F2 D) Cl2 E) Br2 13. The respective bond types in Cl2, HCl and NaCl are: A) Ionic, polar covalent, non-polar cavalent B) Non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic C) Polar covalent, non-polar covalent, ionic 18.
5° The shape of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3) and water (H2O) molecules are based upon the tetrahedron. CH4 has four bonds while the other two molecules have lone pair electrons as well as bonding electron pairs. As the number of lone pair electrons increases the bond angles decrease. The reason is that the free electron pairs occupy a larger volume in space. 5°. To summarize, the orientations of the electron pairs around of the central atoms in each of the three molecules are based upon the tetrahedron..
H In the CH4 molecule the net vectorial force applied on carbon atom by the four polar bonds is zero. This is because of the symmetry of the molecule, hence it is non–polar. C H The shape of the CH4 molecule is tetrahedral. 5° (Figure 6). 5 10 The geometry of the molecule H H Figure 6: The shape of the CH4 molecule. 11 Explain the bond structure of the CF4 molecule by using electron dot structure. Carbon undergoes hybridization and F forms four identical sp3 hybrid orbitals. Only one of seven valence electrons in F C F fluorine is unpaired.