By C. R. Woodcock DipTech, MSc, PhD, CEng, MIMechE, J. S. Mason BSc, PhD, CEng, FIMechE, FIMarE, MIMinE (auth.)
An realizing ofthe houses and the dealing with features of drinks and gases has lengthy been considered as a necessary requirement for many training engineers. it truly is for this reason now not miraculous that, through the years, there was a typical visual appeal of books facing the basics of fluid mechanics, fluid move, hydraulics and comparable issues. what's superb is that there was no parallel improvement of the comparable self-discipline of Bulk Solids dealing with, regardless of its expanding significance in sleek internationally. it's only very lately based method of the instructing, and studying, of the topic has started to conform. A explanation for the sluggish emergence of Bulk Solids dealing with as an permitted subject of research in educational classes on mechanical, agricultural, chemical, mining and civil engineering might be that the perform is so frequently taken with no consideration. definitely the diversity of fabrics being dealt with in bulk is sort of never-ending, ranging in measurement from high quality airborne dirt and dust to rocks, in price from refuse to gold, and in temperature from deep-frozen peas to near-molten metal.
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Extra resources for Bulk Solids Handling: An Introduction to the Practice and Technology
15a) which is not dependent on the position or movement of the particles. If this light then passes through a lens it will be drawn to a focus in the form of an annular ring on the focal plane (Figure U5b). IS The principle of laser diffraction spectrometry. 16 The elements of a laser diffraction particle sizer. incident light beam will be diffracted in a complex manner, but the result will be a radially symmetrical pattern of light on the focal plane of the lens, the intensity of this light at any radius being a function of the proportion of particles of a corresponding size.
A 'flakiness index' can be measured using special sieves having elongated slots . Defining the shape of non-spherical particles in mathematical terms is not easy, but many 26 BULK SOLIDS HANDLING attempts have been made to established the use of shape factors to indicate the extent to which particles differ from the spherical. Probably the most commonly used of these shape factors is the 'sphericity' ¢ .. defined as the reciprocal of the ratio of the surface area of a particle to that of a sphere of the same volume: A.
28b). The torsional shear tester itself suffers from the major disadvantage that the stress distribution within the sheared material is undefinable, and the annular shear cell would therefore appear to be the most reliable means of investigating the flow characteristics of bulk materials. 28 Cb) Annular (ring) Principle of torsional and annular shear testers. 38 BULK SOLIDS HANDLING ( "'y------------r .. :- . 29 The Portishead ring shear cell. 29 illustrates in detail the arrangement of the Portishead ring shear cell as originally devised by Walker [13,14].