Breathing Space: The Natural and Unnatural History of Air by Mark Everard

By Mark Everard

Air is key to human existence—it protects us from radiation, continues weather and climate styles, disperses seeds and pollen, and serves in its place power resource. regardless of all of this, air continues to be overlooked in environmental coverage, with its ownerless, without boundary lines nature making it tricky to crusade and legislate.
 
Breathing Space is the 1st ebook to correctly combine air into the broader environmental discourse. Mark Everard assesses the atmosphere’s constitution and its position inside our total surroundings and argues persuasively for the need of governments’ and activists’ acceptance of air as an important source, in addition to the dire want for better world wide guidelines on air rules. This paintings is lengthy late and a must-read for students, environmental activists, and somebody environmental coverage.

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Most obviously, the sailing ships of the pre-industrial age, sails filled by oceanic wind, were a technological advance that greatly helped ‘Britannia rule the waves’. Poisonous gases released into the air as a weapon of war were a macabre innovation of the First World War, killing often indiscriminately and prone to causing disastrous self-inflicted harm when wind currents changed, carrying toxic atmospheric loads back to allied lines. Phosgene (a simple molecule comprising two chlorine atoms and one of oxygen double-bonded to a central carbon atom), chlorine in its molecular form and mustard gas (also known as sulphur mustards, comprising a range of organic substances with a central sulphur atom 43 2 · Living in a bubble of atmospheric nitrogen with charcoal at high temperatures in the presence of alkali materials was first observed by the French chemist Desfosses in 1828.

Denitrification is the microbially vectored reduction of nitrates back into largely inert nitrogen gas, completing the nitrogen cycle. There are obvi­ ously significant additional pathways and complexities to this cycle in different habitat types. However, this overview of the nitrogen cycle emphasises air as a key reservoir, and highlights the role of ecosystems in mediating and limiting the throughput of this essential life support cycle through aerial, terrestrial and aquatic media. Land, water and air Air and the atmosphere, then, are far from being distinct from each other, but rather act as a great continuum connected by and connecting the Earth’s great cycles of matter and energy.

They could carry loads varying from a 12 kilogram (26 pound) incendiary device or a 15 kilogram (33 pound) antipersonnel bomb to four 5 kilogram (11 pound) incendiary devices. Between Nov­ ember 1944 and April 1945, Japan launched over 9,300 fire balloons from sites on the east coast of the main Japanese island of Honshū. Timed fuses, set according to estimates of when the balloons would arrive over American soil, triggered ignition of gunpowder to blow up the balloons and release the payloads.

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