Brain-Computer Interfacing: An Introduction by Rajesh P. N. Rao

By Rajesh P. N. Rao

The assumption of interfacing minds with machines has lengthy captured the human mind's eye. contemporary advances in neuroscience and engineering are making this a fact, commencing the door to recovery and augmentation of human actual and psychological functions. scientific functions equivalent to cochlear implants for the deaf and neurally managed prosthetic limbs for the paralyzed have gotten nearly commonplace.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) also are more and more getting used in safety, lie detection, alertness tracking, telepresence, gaming, schooling, paintings, and human augmentation. This creation to the sphere is designed as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate classes in neural engineering or brain-computer interfacing for college students from quite a lot of disciplines. it could actually even be used for self-study and as a reference by way of neuroscientists, desktop scientists, engineers, and clinical practitioners. Key positive factors comprise questions and routines in every one bankruptcy and a assisting site.

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Furthest from the base of the brain are the two cerebral hemispheres, consisting of the neocortex, the basal ganglia, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. The basal ganglia play an important role in motor control and action selection while the amygdala is involved in the regulation of emotion. The hippocampus is known to be critical for memory and learning, besides spatial cognition. 5) and is about one-­eighth of an inch thick. It consists of about 30 billion neurons arranged in six layers, each neuron making about 10,000 synapses with other neurons, yielding around 300 trillion connections in total.

A tetrode can be used to record from at most four neurons at the same time. e. Multielectrode arrays can be used for simultaneously recording the spiking activity of dozens of neurons. f. Electrocorticography (ECoG) involves recording electrical potentials from the surface of the brain. 4. Discuss the relationship between the signal recorded by an ECoG electrode and the neural activity underneath that electrode. 5. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of using a multielectrode array versus an ECoG array for recording brain activity.

Edu/~napl/). microelectrodes and more sophisticated implantable chips, such as the Neurochip, that implement signal processing and other algorithms, processing neural activity and delivering stimulation within the chip itself rather than being tethered to a computer. 1 Multielectrode ­Arrays As described above, microelectrodes used for recording spiking activity can also be used to deliver depolarizing or hyperpolarizing current to excite or inhibit neurons. Thus, in a multielectrode array, some electrodes can be set aside for recording and others may be used for stimulation.

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