By Werner E. G. Müller, Heinz C. Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
This booklet describes the invention of molecules from unexploited severe marine environments, and offers new techniques in marine genomics. It combines the present nation of data in marine genomics and complex average items’ chemistry to pursue the sustainable creation of novel secondary metabolites (lead compounds), in addition to pharmacologically lively peptides/proteins, with antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporotic, anti-protozoan/anti-plasmodial, anti-ageing and immune-modulating results. additional, it employs molecular-biology-based methods and complex chemical strategies to procure and to choose candidate compounds for pre-clinical and medical studies.
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Additional info for Blue Biotechnology: From Gene to Bioactive Product
2004b). The assay was used to guide the fractionation and isolation procedure of an aqueous ethanol extract of G. barretti, which showed inhibition of the cyprid settlement. This resulted in identiﬁcation of two cyclic dipeptides, named barettin (Lidgren et al. 1986) and 8,9-dihydrobarettin (Sjögren et al. 2004b). They both consist of one brominated tryptophane residue and one arginine residue forming a diketopiperazine type of cyclic peptide (Fig. 3). However, the initial structure was for sometime a matter of discussion (Sölter et al.
Other smaller sponge peptidic natural products described (Blunt et al. 2016) appear to originate from non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. 35 Years of Marine Natural Product Research … 23 Fig. 4 a Sequence alignment of barrettides, asteropine A and asteropsins. Cysteines and disulﬁde bond conﬁgurations are in yellow: barrettides A and B contain two disulﬁde bonds in a ladder arrangement, other peptides are cystine knots. Note that asteropsins G, D, A, B and C contain pyroGlu at their N-terminal. b Three-dimensional structure of barrettide A, represented by the overlay of the 20 best structures after NMR.
Aureus (MIC = 16 µg mL−1) and against the yeasts Candida albicans (IC50 = 32 µg mL−1) and Cryptococcus neoformans (IC50 = 8 µg mL−1). Manzamenone N also exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities against E. coli (MIC = 32 µg mL−1), C. albicans (IC50 = 32 µg mL−1), and C. neoformans (IC50 = 4 µg mL−1). According to the structure of the compounds, since Manzamenone L did not show any antimicrobial activity, the presence of a free carboxylic acid at C-5 position was reported as being important for the antimicrobial activities (Kubota et al.