By C. Grassi, J. Travis, L. Casali, M. Luisetti, R. Corsico
Pulmonary emphysema is a disorder which develops due to a localized imbalance among endogenous proteinase inhibitors and proteinases leaking from neurophils in the course of phagocytosis at inflammatory foci in the lung. This quantity not just reports at a biochemical point what's recognized concerning the usual inhibitors and proteinases keen on connective tissue destruction in the lung, but additionally indicates novel methodologies for reestablishing right enzyme-inhibitor stability, together with using synthetic or natural inhibitors for supplementation or gene therapy.
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Extra resources for Biochemistry of Pulmonary Emphysema
A Word about Control Mechanisms The endopeptidases are potentially very damaging to the body, and certainly there are a number of endopeptidases in the body that are potentially quite capable of degrading the structural proteins of the lung, given conditions favourable for their activity. Not surprisingly, strict control systems exist for the enzymes, and I would suggest that it is an understanding of the way in which the enzymes are controlled, and sometimes released from control, that may be expected to lead to an eventual understanding of tissue damage in the lung.
Mechanisms of pulmonary emphysema. Attraction of macrophage precursors to sites of disease activity by elastin fragments. Science, 1981; 212:925-927 35. : Monocyte adhesion to subendothelial components. Blood 1987; 69:1265-1268 36. , Crouch E. : Neutrophils show chemotaxis to type IV collagen and its 7S domain and contain a 67 kD type IV collagen binding protein with lectin properties. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Bioi. 1989; 1:479-487 37. : Endogenous mammalian lectin localized extracellularly in lung elastic fibers.
Serine endopeptidases are especially abundant in the plasma, where examples are kallikrein, thrombin and plasmin. There are also large quantities of the proenzymes 30 of trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatic elastase in the pancreas, and these are activated when they reach the intestine, by another serine endopeptidase, enteropeptidase. Serine endopeptidases are also found in the intracellular organelles of neutrophils, mast cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes, and it is those of neutrophils that have been given a great deal of attention in connection with emphysema (Table II).