By Peter Smith
The Avro Lancaster is without doubt one of the most appropriate and respected airplane in aviation heritage. The RAF's heavy bomber used to be built in the course of the early years of worldwide struggle 2 whilst Britain's basically technique of taking the offensive to Germany was once throughout the Royal Air Force's strategic night-bombing crusade.
the 1st Lancaster venture used to be in 1942, and the plane used to be an rapid luck. Powered by way of 4 Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, its functionality outstripped its opponents. by means of the top of the battle, the airplane had performed 156,000 missions and dropped over 600,000 a whole lot high-explosive bombs and greater than fifty one million incendiary bombs. Its versatility used to be such that it excelled additionally in lots of different roles, together with sunlight precision bombing.
a few of its raids have handed into folklore the 1943 'Dambusters' raid on dams within the Ruhr sector of Germany offering the original bouncing bombs designed through Barnes Wallace is without doubt one of the most renowned. Nineteen Lancasters took half during this raid in might 1943, and 8 planes have been misplaced. The 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne led via Bomber Harris and the sinking of the Tirpitz whilst it was once holed up in a Norwegian fjord utilizing 5-ton Tallboy bombs have been additionally key Lancaster raids which replaced the process the struggle.
Comprehensively illustrated all through with a beautiful selection of black and white and colour images, this e-book could be enjoyable examining not just for aviation fans, yet for all who recognize the legend of the Lancaster bomber in Britain's wartime heritage.
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Additional resources for Avro Lancaster: Britain's Greatest Wartime Bomber
107, No. 24, pp. 68–70. 13 This Page is Intentionally Left Blank Chapter 2 Aluminum Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural Materials A typical material distribution for a modern commercial airliner, shown in Fig. 1, illustrates the heavy dominance of aluminum alloys. The attractiveness of aluminum is that it is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated to fairly high strength levels, and it is one of the more easily fabricated of the high performance materials, which usually results in lower costs.
During aging, the alloying elements trapped in solution precipitate to form a uniform distribution of very fine particles. This fine distribution of precipitates strengthens and hardens the alloy by creating obstacles to dislocation movement. Some aluminum alloys will harden after a few days at room temperature – a process called natural aging, while others are artificially aged by heating to an intermediate temperature. Consider the aluminum–copper system shown in Fig. 2. If an alloy of aluminum containing 4% copper is heated to 940 F and held for 1 h, the copper will go into solution in the aluminum.
Iron and nickel provides strength with only a little loss in electrical conductivity and are used in a series of alloys for conductors. Aluminum–iron alloys have also been developed for potential elevated temperature applications. The 8XXX series also contains some of the high strength aluminum–lithium alloys which are potential airframe materials. Aluminum–lithium alloys are attractive for aerospace applications because the addition of lithium increases the modulus of aluminum and reduces the density.