By R Muniappan; et al
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Extra resources for Arthropod pests of horticultural crops in tropical Asia
Several types of onions are grown all over the world and some are used both green and dry. Onions have become popular because of their medicinal value. Onion thrips that transmit virus diseases in addition to direct damage by army worms, onion fly, and leaf miners are the most serious insect pests of onions in tropical Asia. Common name: Onion thrips Scientific name: Thrips tabaci Lindeman Order: Thysanoptera Family: Thripidae Origin: Middle East, countries bordering the Black and Caspian Seas Distribution: Cosmopolitan Hosts: More than 300 species of plants have been recorded for this pest.
Eggs are inserted singly along the leaf margins. They are cream colored and hatch in 3–4 days. Larvae are dark gray and have three pairs of thoracic and eight pairs of abdominal legs. They pass through five to seven instars and the larval duration varies from 13–35 days depending upon the temperature (Fig. 17). Pupation takes place in an oval cocoon in the soil. Damage: Larvae feed on the leaves and skeletonize them. Natural enemies: The larval parasitoid, Perilissus cingulator, and a bacterium Serratia marcescens have been recorded from India.
Eggs are round, white or cream, and hatch in 2-4 days. Upon hatching, they pass through one larval and two nymphal stages before reaching the adult stage. The life cycle is completed in 1–2 weeks. Damage: Feeding of the mites causes white or yellow specks on the leaves. , and lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, are known to feed on spider mites. Common name: Leaf roller Scientific name: Eublemma olivacea Walker Order: Lepidoptera Family: Noctuidae Distribution: South Asia Life cycle: The adult is a medium-sized olive green moth, and it lays eggs in groups of 10–20 on younger leaves.