Army Field Manual FM 31-70 (Basic Cold Weather Manual) by The United States Army

By The United States Army

"This guide is designed to organize the person soldier and small unit commander to behavior army operations for prolonged classes of time less than the main serious and ranging chilly climate weather conditions. The doctrine and strategies within the handbook are appropriate in any zone that has chilly climate and snow with their accompanying operational difficulties. Troops effectively proficient during this doctrine and those concepts might be in a position to struggle; dwell; and flow in any chilly climate zone of the world."-From the advent.

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In the woods, a lean-to is normally preferable to other types of shelter. In northern areas, nature provides the individual with the means to prepare a shelter. His comfort, however, greatly depends on his initiative and skill at improvising. d. A shelter should always provide adequate protection from the elements, retain heat, have suitable ventilation, and provide drying facilities. 3-14. Poncho Shelters A poncho is a part of an individual’s uniform. It is a multipurpose piece of equipment that may be used as a rain garment, a waterproof bedcover, a ground sheet, or a shelter.

Units operating in the field under cold weather conditions may store water in 5-gallon water cans with insulated covers, or other similar type containers for use by small detachments or individuals. Immersion-type heaters may be used to prevent freezing of water supply tanks. Some points to be remembered are(1) Transportation of water by wheeled vehicles in barren, sparsely settled areas under snow and ice conditions is practicable only when there is a road net established. The best way to transport water in cold regions is by the use of track-laying vehicles which are not dependent on roads for maAGO 8641A neuverability.

1) Ration, individual, trail, frigid. This ration is designed for trail use under cold weather conditions. While hot meals can and are intended to be prepared from this ration, all components, except the dehydrated soups and beverages may be eaten without preparation. Components of the ration such as, processed cheese, fruitcake bars and candy are especially adaptable to consumption in mobile situations. The inclusion of several condiments enables maximum flexibility in component preparation. The ration supplies a minimum of 4,400 calories.

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