A Short Course in Cloud Physics by M.K. Yau, R R Rogers

By M.K. Yau, R R Rogers

Covers crucial components of cloud and precipitation physics and has been generally rewritten with over 60 new illustrations and lots of new and recent references. Many present themes are lined equivalent to mesoscale meteorology, radar cloud reviews and numerical cloud modelling, and themes from the second one variation, reminiscent of serious storms, precipitation methods and massive scale points of cloud physics, were revised. difficulties are incorporated as examples and to complement the text.

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This is the level where you would expect to find the bases of cumulus clouds. If the air is conditionally unstable above the CCL, ascent of rising convective elements would continue with temperature falling off at the pseudoadiabatic lapse rate. This schematic picture illustrates the principle of cloud formation by convection, but the real process may often be complicated by the fact that heating causes evaporation of water at the earth's surface, which will increase the mixing ratio, tending to lower the CCL.

For the special case y = I', the displaced parcel experiences zero buoyancy force. The stability criteria for dry air may thus be summarized yr UNSTABLE These criteria may alternatively be expressed in terms of potential temperature. 24), the differentials of T, (), and p are related by T kT dT = - dO + dp. 8), and the equation of state. 10). 10) reduces to d 2z dt 2 = g -T (T - y)z. 12), this result may be written 2 d 2z = dt where N = frequency. 14) V(g/O)( ao/az) has units of S-l and is called the Brunt-Vaisala 32 A Short Course in Cloud Physics For N 2 = 0, the displaced parcel is in neutral equilibrium and there is no restoring force.

Thus T, = T Lw + -. 32) (d) Isentropic condensation temperature Tc ' defined as the tempera- 21 Water Vapor ture at which saturation is reached when moist air is cooled adiabatically with W held constant. This temperature is most readily understood with the help of a thermodynamic chart (Fig. 2). The air initially has coordinates (T, p) with mixing ratio w. It is cooled adiabatically until its adiabat intersects the vapor line defined by W s = w. The pressure at this intersection is called the isentropic condensation pressure, and the temperature is T c .

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