A-10 Warthog by Ken Neubeck

By Ken Neubeck

A-10 Warthog КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Squadron/Signal publicationsСерия: Mini 4Автор(ы): Ken NeubeckЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 1995Количество страниц: 52ISBN: 0-89747-335-3Формат: pdf (300 dpi) 1600x 2470Размер: 41.8 mbRapid 17

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3 Dynamic and thermodynamic principles The second part of the second law states that for any process the change in entropy for the system is dS ≥ –Q d . 13) The equality occurs only for a reversible process. 13) for a system to which there is no heat transfer is dS ≥ 0 (for a system with d– Q = 0). 13) can also be written as a rate equation in terms of the heat transfer rate and temperature of the fluid particles which comprise the system. With s the specific entropy or entropy per unit mass, D DS = Dt Dt sdm ≥ 1– dQ .

Let us examine the volume Vsys , which is bounded by the surface Asys (t), at two times, t and t + dt, where dt is a small time increment. 3. The surface is a material surface (meaning that it is always made up of the same fluid particles) which moves and deforms with the fluid. At time, t, the material surface Asys (t) is taken to coincide with a fixed surface, A, which encloses the fixed volume, V, so the system is wholly inside the control surface. 3. 3. The change of the property C in time dt is thus dt DC = Dt ρcdV + Vsys (t+dt) ρcdV + dV IIs at t+dt ρcdV − dV Isys at t+dt ρcdV.

It can also be expressed in terms of the substantial derivative of the density as ∂u i 1 Dρ + =0 ρ Dt ∂ xi 1 Dρ + ∇ · u = 0, ρ Dt in vector notation . 4) The continuity equation for an incompressible fluid can be written as an explicit statement that the density of a fluid particle remains constant: Dρ = 0. 5) implies that for an incompressible flow ∂u i =0 ∂ xi (or ∇· u = 0). 6, this is a condition on the rate of change of fluid volume, as can be seen from the Divergence Theorem: V ∂u i dV = ∂ xi (u i n i ) d A = 0.

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