By Ken Neubeck
A-10 Warthog КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Squadron/Signal publicationsСерия: Mini 4Автор(ы): Ken NeubeckЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 1995Количество страниц: 52ISBN: 0-89747-335-3Формат: pdf (300 dpi) 1600x 2470Размер: 41.8 mbRapid 17
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Extra info for A-10 Warthog
3 Dynamic and thermodynamic principles The second part of the second law states that for any process the change in entropy for the system is dS ≥ –Q d . 13) The equality occurs only for a reversible process. 13) for a system to which there is no heat transfer is dS ≥ 0 (for a system with d– Q = 0). 13) can also be written as a rate equation in terms of the heat transfer rate and temperature of the ﬂuid particles which comprise the system. With s the speciﬁc entropy or entropy per unit mass, D DS = Dt Dt sdm ≥ 1– dQ .
Let us examine the volume Vsys , which is bounded by the surface Asys (t), at two times, t and t + dt, where dt is a small time increment. 3. The surface is a material surface (meaning that it is always made up of the same ﬂuid particles) which moves and deforms with the ﬂuid. At time, t, the material surface Asys (t) is taken to coincide with a ﬁxed surface, A, which encloses the ﬁxed volume, V, so the system is wholly inside the control surface. 3. 3. The change of the property C in time dt is thus dt DC = Dt ρcdV + Vsys (t+dt) ρcdV + dV IIs at t+dt ρcdV − dV Isys at t+dt ρcdV.
It can also be expressed in terms of the substantial derivative of the density as ∂u i 1 Dρ + =0 ρ Dt ∂ xi 1 Dρ + ∇ · u = 0, ρ Dt in vector notation . 4) The continuity equation for an incompressible ﬂuid can be written as an explicit statement that the density of a ﬂuid particle remains constant: Dρ = 0. 5) implies that for an incompressible ﬂow ∂u i =0 ∂ xi (or ∇· u = 0). 6, this is a condition on the rate of change of ﬂuid volume, as can be seen from the Divergence Theorem: V ∂u i dV = ∂ xi (u i n i ) d A = 0.